Concertos for the Emperor (2004)


The English Concert

Andrew Manze

In September 1728, the Habsburg ruler Charles VI, Archduke of Austria, King of Germany, Hungary, Bohemia and Spain, Holy Roman Emperor etc etc, travelled to the Duchy of Carniola in order to inspect the port of Trieste. Antonio Vivaldi made the eighty-mile journey northeast of Venice to attend on him. It is not known whether the two men had met before, although the previous year Vivaldi had dedicated his twelve concertos Op.9, entitled La cetra (The Lyre), to Charles, suggesting they probably had met or at least corresponded. This encounter seems to have been the highlight of an otherwise disappointing trip for the Emperor, judging by two letters which survive from a Venetian Abbe?, Antonio Conti, to a French lady, Mme de Caylus. On 23 September Conti wrote, ‘the Emperor is not too happy with his Trieste. . . . He has spent a lot of time discussing music with Vivaldi. It is said that he has spoken with him more in two weeks than he has with his own ministers in two years. . . . His appetite for music is very strong.’ And in another letter Conti wrote, ‘the Emperor has given Vivaldi a large amount of money together with a chain and gold medallion.’

Cash and baubles were no doubt welcome to Vivaldi but probably not the reward he was hoping for: to become one of Charles’s court composers. Of all the arts, the Emperor favoured music in particular. Like his grandfather, Ferdinand III, and father, Leopold I, Charles was an able composer, mainly of church music, and a generous patron. He funded the publication of Gradus ad Parnassum (1725), one of the most influential works of western music theory by his composition teacher and Kapellmeister, Johann Joseph Fux, and he was skilled enough as a performer to direct performances of operas by Fux and the vice Kapellmeister Antonio Caldara. Charles maintained the Habsburg tradition of employing Italian artists at court, and Venetians in particular. As well as Caldara, Marc Antonio Ziani, Fux’s predecessor as Kapell- meister, was from Venice, as were Sebastiano Ricci and Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, who painted altarpieces for the Emperor’s new Karlskirche, and the court poets Apostolo Zeno and Pietro Metastasio. Vivaldi no doubt had high hopes that he might join his countrymen in Vienna, perhaps with a dual role as player and composer, such as that of Francesco Bartolomeo Conti. Conti, no relation to the letter writer above, was for many years the principal theorbo player as well as court composer. Holding two posts meant receiving two stipends, which raised Conti’s income higher than that of Fux himself. It was not to be, however. Perhaps Vivaldi’s compositional style was too modern for the Emperor’s—or Fux’s—conservative tastes. When a new court composer was appointed a few years later, Matteo Palotta was chosen, a master of the stile antico. This was the ‘old style’ of Palestrina, ‘the brightest light in Music, whose memory I shall never cease to honour with the greatest reverence’ (Fux, Gradus).

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The English Concert

The English Concert was founded by Trevor Pinnock in 1973 and is among the world’s leading early music ensembles. Under Andrew Manze’s direction, the orchestra has added annual appearances in the USA to its worldwide touring schedule and is expanding its recording plans with harmonia mundi usa.

Andrew Manze

Andrew Manze is “a violinist with extraordinary flair and improvisatory freedom” (BBC Music Magazine), “the first modern superstar of the baroque violin” (San Francisco Examiner).

As a player, he specializes in repertoire from 1610 to 1830; as a conductor, he is much in demand among both period- and modern-instrument orchestras around the world. He also teaches, edits music, contributes articles to numerous periodicals, and broadcasts regularly on radio and television. He is a presenter on BBC Radio’s new Early Music Show.

A Cambridge Classicist by training, Andrew Manze studied the violin with Simon Standage and Marie Leonhardt. He was Associate Director of The Academy of Ancient Music from 1996 to 2003, and succeeded Trevor Pinnock as Artistic Director of The English Concert in July of that year. He is also Artist-in-residence at the Swedish Chamber Orchestra. In his new role at The English Concert, Andrew will move into Classical repertoire, including Mozart’s violin concertos, orchestral works and reorchestrations of Handel’s oratorios, while continuing to perform baroque repertoire. 2003 saw his debut tour of the UK with The English Concert, a televized concert at the London Proms and a filmed reconstruction of Handel’s Water Music on the River Thames for the BBC. In their first prize-winning recording together, Manze led The English Concert in a dazzling Mozart program, including Eine kleine Nachtmusik (hmu 907280).

Andrew Manze is also active as a guest conductor in large-scale oratorio and symphonic repertoire, with symphony, chamber and period-instrument orchestras in Europe, the US and Australia. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music and a Visiting Professor at the Royal College of Music, London; his cadenzas to Mozart’s violin concertos were recently published by Breitkopf & Ha?rtel.

Manze records exclusively for harmonia mundi usa and has released an astonishing variety of CDs. Recordings made with the trio Romanesca (Biber, Schmelzer, Vivaldi), The Academy of Ancient Music (including Bach violin concertos, Geminiani and Handel concerti grossi), and as a soloist (Telemann, Tartini), have garnered many international prizes: the Gramophone, Edison and Cannes Classical Awards, the Premio Internazionale del Disco Antonio Vivaldi and the Diapason d’Or—each of them twice. Since 1984 his collaboration with Richard Egarr has been setting new standards. Their discography includes sonatas by Rebel and Bach (both awarded the Preis der Deutschen Schallplattenkritik) and Pandolfi’s complete Violin Sonatas (Gramophone Award, 2000). Their recording of the complete Violin Sonatas of Handel was nominated for a 2003 Grammy ® Award, and figured in the US Billboard ® Chart. Their previous release, Corelli’s Sonatas Op.5, has received unanimous rave reviews, was Gramophone’s Recording of the Month and won the 2003 Prix Caecilia. Their next release will be of Mozart sonatas.

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Concertos for the Emperor (2004)


The English Concert

    Music Week

Should there be any detractors who still harbour doubts about Vivaldi’s genius they should listen to this outstanding release. The Harmonia Mundi sound engineers have produced excellent sonics and the annotation is interesting and informative. These are superlative accounts to cherish!

Michael Cookson

    Los Angeles Times

This set consists of alternative versions of six concertos previously published as part of the Opus 9 set, "La Cetra" (The Lyre). Opus 9 had been dedicated to the Austrian ruler Charles VI, and these alternatives were versions Vivaldi gave the emperor when they met during Charles' visit to Trieste in 1728. Sweetness and energy characterize the playing, with the muted orchestra effect in Concerto No. 10, "L'amoroso," especially seductive. Manze also provides several dazzling improvised cadenzas.

Chris Pasles

    The Seattle Times

This disc of Vivaldi violin concertos is their second collaboration, and what an amazing one it is. Those who like to dismiss Vivaldi as elevator music should take a listen. Such vital, often electric and compelling music and music making is rare.

RM Campbell

    San Francisco Chronicle

Andrew Manze, the vivid soloist and director of the English Concert, brings to this disc the suppleness and sense of immediacy he did to the superb Concert for the Prince of Poland (also on Harmonia Mundi). These performances yield a glowing musicality throughout.

Steve Winn


The engineers have captured Manze's sparkle. Strongly recommended to general audiences as well as to Manze's many admirers, for who it's mandatory.

Robert Maxham


Music fit for a king in performances that fully match Vivaldi's grand vision. "I don't think I've enjoyed a Vivaldi disc so much for years: the music very characteristic, but much freer of cliché than he is sometimes apt to be. And the there's the performance. This is violin playing of an extremely high order from Andrew Manze: thythms beautifully springy, articulation clear and precise, intonation perfect, and great refinement in the shaping of phrases. The orchestra support is strong and energetic, the recrded quality is first-rate. An outstanding CD in every way."

Stanley Sadie

    The Times, London

"With violinis Andrew Manze... holding the reins... you can feel electricity crackle again." -

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HMU907332: Concertos for the Emperor
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Concerto no. 2 in C major rv 189 - I Larghetto - Allegro non molto
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Concerto no. 2 in C major rv 189 - II Largo
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Concerto no. 2 in C major rv 189 - III Allegro molto - cadenza by A.M.
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Concerto no.10, L'amoroso, in E major rv 271 - I Allegro
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Concerto no.10, L'amoroso, in E major rv 271 - II Cantabile
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Concerto no.10, L'amoroso, in E major rv 271 - III Allegro
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Concerto no. 3 in C minor rv 202 - I Allegro non molto
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Concerto no. 3 in C minor rv 202 - II Largo
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Concerto no. 3 in C minor rv 202 - III Allegro non molto
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Concerto no. 7 in C major rv 183 - I Allegro non molto
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Concerto no. 7 in C major rv 183 - II Largo
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Concerto no. 7 in C major rv 183 - III Allegro
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Concerto no. 11 Il favorito, in E minor rv 277 - I Allegro
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Concerto no. 11 Il favorito, in E minor rv 277 - II Andante
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Concerto no. 11 Il favorito, in E minor rv 277 - III Allegro
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Concerto no. 4 in F major rv 286 - I Largo molto e spiccato
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Concerto no. 4 in F major rv 286 - II Largo - cadenza by A.M.
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Concerto no. 4 in F major rv 286 - III Allegro non molto
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